In the last ten years the movement of oil in Spain has been in flux, although our history is relatively modern, we can give a little review, without delving into her, that if the change in the monopoly market liberalization can say it was a model, analyzing cross we could draw other conclusions.
It is obvious that liberalization is a qualitative and quantitative market expansion as more efficient and democratic institution for production and distribution of economic goods. Such extension involves removal of administrative obstacles to the sociocultural, but this alone is not enough.
The positive nature of liberalization can be seen in the expansion of creative and productive capacity: to let each person and each company put into operation all its productive potentialities.
We have to go back to the entry of Spain into the European Economic Community, Spain breached the Treaty of Rome, the Spanish-owned oil industry was focused on refining, no greater or better ,without any- experience in the marketing of products.
So we can say that there are three stages in this process
|1927-1984||Oil Monopoly in Spain|
|1984-1992||Transitional Period towards liberalization of Spain EEC income|
|1992-2003||Liberalization of the oil sector|
In this process three key milestones occur:
- Demonopolization ending with the Law 34/92 Ordination of the oil sector. Two main features are: consolidation of two major oil companies and the Spanish settlement of major international oil.
- Release, (Law 34/98 the Hydrocarbons sector enshrines free enterprise at retail stage of the market and pricing freedom. (except LPG).
- And several royal decrees and decrees laws and DR. L6/2000 two 23 June, the short-term vocation combines with the introduction of measures to accelerate the liberalization process that opens with Law 34/98, in what refers to hydrocarbons.
Service stations by that time state passed into the hands of well intended Campsa, failed to comply with a treaty by Spain , but this action that sought the release of the sector all I did was to pass into the hands of Campsa as exclusive distributor and marketer in Spain.(year 1984). Law 45/1984, of 17 December.
Until one year after (1985 with the signing of a treaty of accession to the EEC ) was not when he gave free rein to that within six years (transition time), restrictions would be removed gradually.
All this resulted in December 1985 give free rein to the entry of foreign operators and products originating in the EEC.
On 22 December 1992 the law is passed 34/1992, why is declared final and completely extinguished the oil monopoly in Spain and all activities are liberalized sector.
Here you can view a chronology of the CNE, a very interesting paper industry developments.
After this short introduction of our history Oil, we can say that the sector has not stopped moving, small oil come from other countries buying stations and small groups could be ERG (Italian) (with buying stations cepsa ;bp, Tamoil (brand linked to the Libyan ex-dictator and with many changes), It( subsidiary of U.S. oil company ExxonMobil), Shell Galp (Portuguese) ……..
| Periodista Digital
Reuters, Friday, 18 April 2008
All these movements helped that there is more competition and even grow flagged topo type stations (Dodo), Managed (Elbow) ,free stations and different flags.
But what looked like a giant step for competition in the sector to flow, this tough little, the sector was dominated by two large and were marking the beat all others and very difficult to give a total change to the sector.
It is in 2004 when after many changes in the industry began the mass exodus of oil that once tried in Spain Anglo-Dutch Shell, fourth world oil, with a value of 160.000 million in bag, sold 338 stations to the Spanish company Disa, the family Carceller,. In 2008, the Italian Saras took 81 ERG petrol stations, Also Italian and also came to Spain with the liberalization of the Portuguese Galp mercado.La launched an ambitious expansion plan in Spain staying with other oil filling stations in much larger. A Exxon, he bought the 130 stations that had branded Esso, and the Italian group ENI, which is among the ten largest oil companies in the world, with a value of 72.000 million, COMPRO 280 service stations under the brand Agip. .
However there are groups that use other operations , British group BP (seventh world ranking, with 106.000 billion of market value), was discreetly transferring its network of gas stations to its own employees, or former franchisees along 2010.
Since the departure of international oil began in Spain, have changed hands over a thousand stations (a 11% of which there) in transactions totaling more than 1.200 million. Repsol and Cepsa monopolize network, with 3.600 and 1.500 points (the 39% and 16% market) and BP and Galp are in third and fourth place in Spain.
In our short history of liberalization of the oil sector, we see that there have been many movements but still not give results on the existence of a competitive, as the sector remains in the hands of four large groups and is very difficult to break into the small market.
In our next posts I will discuss the history of petroleum entrenched in Spain.